Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010. Full Report

cover of publication

This report presents 22 key findings on the status and trends of Canada's ecosystems resulting from a collaborative project of the Canadian federal, provincial and territorial governments. It forms part of Canada’s commitment to the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Environment Canada produces a wide variety of publications in various print and electronic formats. Some formats may not be accessible to screen readers. Alternate accessible formats are available upon request. Please contact enviroinfo [at] ec.gc.ca

  • Author: Federal, Provincial and Territorial Governments of Canada
  • Language of Document: Separate English/French
  • Document Type: Report
  • Year: 2010

This 2010 assessment is a collaborative project of the Canadian federal, provincial and territorial governments. It was designed and prepared under the guidance of a federal-provincial-territorial steering committee and is published by the Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. It forms part of Canada’s commitment to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Authors and reviewers include hundreds of experts from across Canada. See About this Assessment for more information.

This website features the key findings of the assessment and background information, including the technical reports, and a full list of authors and contributors. The series of ecozone+-based and thematic technical reports that support the 22 key findings of the assessment are being posted on the technical reports page as they become available.

Suggested citation:

Federal, Provincial and Territorial Governments of Canada. 2010. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010 [online]. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON.

Order a hard copy of Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010 by email or phone from the Contact Us page.

About this Assessment

The Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers developed a Biodiversity Outcomes Framework in 20061 to focus conservation and restoration actions under the Canadian Biodiversity Strategy.2Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, is a first report under this framework. It assesses progress towards the framework’s goal of “Healthy and Diverse Ecosystems” and the two desired conservation outcomes, i) productive, resilient, diverse ecosystems with the capacity to recover and adapt, and ii) damaged ecosystems restored. The results of this assessment will be used to inform the national biodiversity agenda, complement the focus on species, and help set biodiversity priorities.

This report was prepared under the guidance of a steering committee of federal, provincial, and territorial government representatives. Over 500 experts participated in the preparation of foundation technical reports (see Authors and Contributors). Twenty–two recurring key findings emerged from the technical information and are presented here, under four interrelated themes: biomes; human/ecosystem interactions; habitat, wildlife, and ecosystem processes; and science/policy interface.

2010 is the International Year of Biodiversity. It is the intention of the Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers to use this report as a partial assessment of Canada’s progress towards the United Nations biodiversity target “to achieve by 2010 a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on Earth.”3

Map of Ecozones

Ecological Classification System – ecozones+

A slightly modified version of the Terrestrial Ecozones of Canada, described in the National Ecological Framework for Canada,4 provided the ecosystem–based units for this assessment. Modifications included: adjustments to terrestrial boundaries to reflect improvements from ground–truthing exercises; the combination of three Arctic ecozones into one; the use of two ecoprovinces – Western Interior Basin and Newfoundland Boreal; the addition of nine marine ecosystem–based units; and, the addition of the Great Lakes as a unit. This modified classification system is referred to as “ecozones+” throughout the assessment to avoid confusion with the more familiar “ecozones” of the original framework.5

Executive Summary

Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010 is the first assessment of Canada’s biodiversity from an ecosystem perspective. It presents 22 key findings derived from technical background reports. Some findings reveal that much of Canada’s natural endowment remains healthy, including large tracts of undisturbed wilderness, internationally significant wetlands, and thriving estuaries, particularly in sparsely populated or less accessible areas. Forest area is fairly stable. Over half of Canada’s landscape remains intact and relatively free from human infrastructure. Although much is in the more remote North, this also includes large tracts of boreal forest and coastal temperate rainforest. Canada maintains commercial and recreational freshwater and marine fisheries of significant economic and cultural importance.

Several stressors that impaired ecosystems in the past have been either removed or reduced. Some marine mammal populations are recovering from past overharvesting. Concentrations of contaminants now phased out of use, such as DDT and PCBs, are declining in wildlife. In the past 15 years, federal, provincial and territorial terrestrial protected areas have increased in number, area, and diversity of ecosystems represented. Canadians have demonstrated their commitment to biodiversity conservation through the growing number of individuals, groups, and businesses involved in stewardship initiatives.

Some key findings highlight areas of concern, where signals suggest that action is needed to maintain functioning ecosystems. These findings include loss of old forests, changes in river flows at critical times of the year, loss of wildlife habitat in agricultural landscapes, declines in certain bird populations, increases in wildfire, and significant shifts in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial food webs. Some contaminants recently detected in the environment are known to be increasing in wildlife. Plant communities and animal populations are responding to climate change. Temperature increases, shifting seasons, and changes in precipitation, ice cover, snowpack, and frozen ground are interacting to alter ecosystems, sometimes in unpredictable ways.

Some key findings identify ecosystems in which natural processes are compromised or increased stresses are reaching critical thresholds. Examples include: fish populations that have not recovered despite the removal of fishing pressure; declines in the area and condition of grasslands, where grassland bird populations are dropping sharply; and, fragmented forests that place forest–dwelling caribou at risk. The dramatic loss of sea ice in the Arctic has many current ecosystem impacts and is expected to trigger declines in ice–associated species such as polar bears. Nutrient loading is on the rise in over 20% of the water bodies sampled, including some of the Great Lakes where, 20 years ago, regulations successfully reduced nutrient inputs. This time, causes are more complex and solutions will likely be more difficult. Lakes affected by acid deposition have been slow to recover, even when acidifying air emissions have been reduced. Invasive non–native species have reached critical levels in the Great Lakes and elsewhere.

A strategy of detecting ecosystem change and acting before thresholds are crossed has the greatest likelihood of preventing biodiversity loss. Examples throughout the assessment demonstrate the excellent return on investment from early response and prevention. Restoration, although more costly than prevention, has also had successes.

Lessons have been learned from preparing this assessment. Canada’s long–term climate and hydrological monitoring programs ensure the reliability and relevance of climate and water trends in areas where station coverage is good. Equivalent monitoring of biodiversity and ecosystems is rare. Local and regional trends are helpful but usually cannot be extrapolated to a wider scale. Information collected for other purposes is often not useful for understanding changes in biodiversity and ecosystems. Relevant ecosystem–level information is less available than decision–makers may realize. Finally, this assessment would not have been possible without the combined efforts of federal, provincial, and territorial governments in sharing data, knowledge, and perspectives.

For more information, read the Key Findings at a Glance, explore the full report on this website, or download the full report. The series of ecozone+–based and thematic technical reports that support the 22 key findings of the assessment will also be available soon.