Extending from northeastern British Columbia, across northern and central portions of Alberta and central Saskatchewan, to Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba, the Boreal Plains Ecozone+ is characterized by a cool climate, generally flat topography, thick surface organic soil layers, poor drainage, low nutrients, and discontinuous permafrost.11 Over 60% forested, with low tree species diversity and relatively slow tree growth, the ecozone+ is interspersed with wetlands, shrublands, and some of Canada’s largest water bodies. Frequent wide-spread natural disturbances including fire, insect outbreaks, and wind drive the structure of the ecozone+. The Boreal Plains Ecozone+ is rich in renewable and non-renewable resources, with resource-based industries being the primary economic drivers. At almost 21% of its landbase, the region provides Canada’s second largest contribution of agriculture land. It has a robust forestry industry, and a rapidly growing energy sector (including the oil sands).